The Hon Gabrielle Upton MP is Parliamentary Secretary to the Premier of New South Wales. On Monday 25 November, Gabrielle Upton addressed The Sydney Institute to outline a new initiative she is leading for the NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian to accelerate R&D in NSW.

ACCELERATING R&D IN NSW

GABRIELLE UPTON

Key messages:

  1. Investment in R&D matters because it powers innovation and can ‘future-proof’ NSW. The NSW Government is a recognised global leader in ‘hard’ infrastructure with our asset recycling strategy leading to an unprecedented $93 billion investment in transport, hospitals and schools1. Now we want to be a recognised global leader in ‘soft’ infrastructure – the infrastructure that helps develop and support ideas for new industries, products and services. This is how we will drive economic growth and better social outcomes so we are more agile in a rapidly changing world.
  2. NSW has strengths in a range of R&D fields but only pockets of excellence in translating research and commercialisation, so we need to:
    • Make better use of the NSW Government’s R&D activity – how we use our own R&D, how we partner with universities and industry and how we procure solutions to our problems.
    • Create the right environment in NSW for R&D and commercialisation activities to thrive.
    • Address some of the critical challenges facing NSW by harnessing our extraordinary brainpower and creativity.
  3. Government doesn’t have all the answers, so our work is guided by an Advisory Council made up of a diverse group of leaders chaired by David Gonski AC. We also want your ideas on how to accelerate R&D so we can continue to invest in the future of NSW.

The Vision

For NSW to be the R&D leader within Australia and a world-class contributor, attracting investment and talent to drive the development and commercialisation of ideas for better social and economic outcomes for our whole community.

Introduction

Thank you for opportunity to speak tonight. Like many of you here, I’m lucky to have the benefit of a university education. I didn’t really appreciate the power of knowledge that comes from research until I looked beyond my own academic studies as a student and served as Deputy Chancellor at UNSW. I saw then the power of knowledge through a larger lens – through the experience of students, academics and university relationships with industry and government. I recognised that unlike many possessions in our lives, knowledge isn’t diminished by use or age, it’s enhanced by both – it’s the ultimate renewable resource. At graduation ceremonies – which are some of the best events I’ve ever attended – I took the opportunity to call on the graduates to continue to explore, ask questions and experiment. It’s an approach that best serves our community which is always striving for better economic and social outcomes – it’s an approach that can ‘power’ R&D.

I’m here tonight because I’m leading an initiative for the NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian to accelerate R&D in NSW.

My mission is to deliver an Action Plan by mid next year that will make NSW the R&D leader within Australia and a world-class contributor.

My mission is to deliver an Action Plan by mid next year that will make NSW the R&D leader within Australia and a world-class contributor.

Tonight, I will make the case that investment in R&D matters because it powers innovation and can ‘future-proof’ NSW. The NSW Government is a recognised global leader in ‘hard’ infrastructure with our asset recycling strategy leading to an unprecedented $93 billion investment in transport, hospitals and schools1. Now we want to be a recognised global leader in ‘soft’ infrastructure – the infrastructure that helps develop and support ideas for new industries, products and services. This is how we will drive economic growth and better social outcomes so we are more agile in a rapidly changing world.

NSW has strengths in a range of R&D fields but only pockets of excellence in translating research and commercialisation, so we need to:

(i) Make better use of the NSW Government’s R&D activity – how we use our own R&D, how we partner with universities and industry and how we procure solutions to our problems.

ii) Create the right environment in NSW for R&D and commercialisation activities to thrive.

iii) Address some of the critical challenges facing NSW by harnessing our extraordinary brainpower and creativity.

Government doesn’t have all the answers, so the work is guided by an Advisory Council made up of a diverse group of leaders chaired by David Gonski AC. We also want your ideas on how to accelerate R&D so we can continue to invest in the future of NSW.

But first to the basics – what exactly is R&D?

R&D drives economic growth and better social outcomes and our ability to capitalise on opportunities that arise in a rapidly changing world.

The OECD defines R&D as ‘the creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge — including knowledge of humankind, culture and society — and to devise new applications of available knowledge.’1 R&D is often referred as Research and ‘Experimental’ Development because the activities are novel, creative and uncertain, in addition to being systematic, transferable, and/or reproducible.2 The key outcome from R&D is ‘progress’ – better health treatments, safer transport, water or energy sustainability solutions just to name a few. It will help us respond in the best way to a changing world and take advantage of the opportunities that arise. R&D from NSW has already had global impact. For example, did you know that the core technology that made wireless LAN fast and reliable, ubiquitous Wi-Fi, was developed by the CSIRO? And that John O’Sullivan, the electrical engineer who pioneered this work in radioastronomy, studied at Sydney University?

Did you know that the core technology that made wireless LAN fast and reliable, ubiquitous Wi-Fi, was developed by the CSIRO?

Other examples include:

  • The electronic pacemaker invented in Sydney by Doctor Mark Lidwill and physicist Edgar Booth and used as early as 1928.
  • The platform for Google Maps developed in Sydney by Danish brothers Lars and Jens Rasmussen in the early 2000s and later sold to Google.
  • Home-grown IT giant Atlassian which is set to become an anchor tenant at Sydney’s Innovation and Technology Precinct located at Central-Eveleigh (Tech Central) creating highly skilled jobs.
  • Solar photovoltaics under UNSW Scientia Professor Martin Green who received the prestigious Global Energy Prize in 2018.
  • NSW’s very own Chief Scientist and Engineer Professor Hugh Durrant-Whyte who leads the way in two evolving fields: autonomous vehicle navigation and sensor data fusion for mine and port automation.

NSW already has strengths in a range of R&D fields like quantum computing, robotics, in the material sciences and medical technology. We are excellent at translating research when it comes to medical devices and in Fintech and in supporting start-ups through the Sydney StartUp Hub.

Let’s take a look at a pocket of translational excellence – medical devices. Since 2013, NSW Health’s Medical Devices Fund (MDF) has supported individuals, companies, public and private hospitals, medical research institutes and universities to take local innovation to market. It has awarded more than $55 million in grants to 35 technologies with the organisations raising more than $690 million, led to the treatment of over 300,000 patients and 200,000 medical devices sold into global markets.3

Two examples of potentially life changing projects are an affordable dialysis system and kits for scalable gene delivery (which are important for gene therapies which will cure forms of cancer).

Two examples of potentially life changing projects are an affordable dialysis system and kits for scalable gene delivery (which are important for gene therapies which will cure forms of cancer).

The MDF compliments the NSW Medical Device Commercialisation Training Program which help build people’s capability to drive medical device commercialisation. Since 2014, the Program’s graduates have established their own companies, engaged industry partners and raised more than $9 million in grants and private investment. 4

So, as a start, one thing we must do is to better support research translation by applying NSW Health’s successful approach on medical devices to other areas of government. The NSW Innovation and Productivity Council (IPC) has been examining university collaboration with the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector to identify ways in which collaboration can be enhanced, both to improve the translation of university R&D and the use of the universities’ research capacity for SMEs.

The IPC found that a business’ ability to collaborate is one of the biggest factors determining its global competitiveness.5 It also found that despite Australia and NSW being top OECD producers of high-value research and talent, currently less than 5% of Australian businesses collaborate in joint R&D projects with an Australian research organisation.6 Now that is a sobering fact that also reveals an enormous opportunity!

It doesn’t make sense for NSW to be lagging in translating research and commercialisation because we have so much going for us as a state. We are the largest state in the nation, the best performing state economy, we have ‘Sydney’ – Australia’s only global city, a highly skilled and educated workforce and universities ranked inside the top institutions globally. Why this the case is a bit of a Rubik’s Cube, but it’s one we are determined to solve.

Australia is ‘good’ but ‘not great’ in R&D and innovation – we need leadership and the NSW Government is stepping up

Australia is a ‘good’ innovation performer internationally, ranking in the top 25 countries for both the Global Competitiveness Report7 and the Global Innovation Index8 for the last 5 years.

The Global Innovation Index is an annual report produced by Cornell University, INSEAD and the World Intellectual Property Organisation. In the 2018 Global Innovation Index, Australia was ranked 20 overall, 11 for innovation inputs and 31 for innovation outputs.9 Inputs measured include the quality of education, R&D investment, market sophistication, the nature and stability of the political and regulatory environment and outputs include knowledge creation and impact.

In this years’ index, Australia is ranked 22 overall, 15 for innovation inputs and 31 for innovation outputs.10 So our overall ranking and input ranking has slipped – including our score on R&D. In addition, our conversion of innovation inputs into innovation outputs is weak and consistently trailing.

The Australian Government stepped up its innovation and R&D agenda in 2015 when it brought many of its separate, but related, policies together under the $1.1 billion National Innovation and Science Agenda. It established a new strategic body, Innovation and Science Australia, charged with informing policy on innovation, science and research, overseeing innovation programs and championing Australia’s innovation, science and research system. Some important initiatives flowed such as the $500 million Biomedical Translation Fund providing companies with venture capital to develop and commercialise biomedical discoveries; 11 and CSIRO’s $200 million Main Sequence Ventures Fund12 supporting the commercialisation of early stage innovations developed at publicly funded institutions.13

The Australian Government stepped up its innovation and R&D agenda in 2015 when it brought many of its separate, but related, policies together under the $1.1 billion National Innovation and Science Agenda.

In November 2017, Innovation and Science Australia published their “Australia 2030: Prosperity through Innovation Plan”.14 It made 30 recommendations underpinning five policy imperatives – education; industry; government; culture and ambition; and R&D – and it made the point that R&D effectiveness would be improved by increasing the translation and commercialisation of research.

However, the intensity of the Australian Government’s focus on R&D has waned. The Science, Research and Innovation Budget Tables report the Government’s annual investment in R&D, science and innovation. The 2019 release shows that investment in R&D peaked in 2011-12 and has since declined, with a small jump in FY2017- 18.15

Australia’s total spending on R&D (that is, the total R&D expenditure by business, government, higher education and the private non-profit sector) was 1.79% of GDP in FY17-18,16 down from 2.11% six years ago and below the OECD average of 2.37% in 2017.17 Meanwhile in 2017, Japan and Sweden committed more than 3% of GDP on R&D, and Korea and Israel more than 4%.18

And despite announcements on a new space agency and space industry development, defence innovation, advanced manufacturing, and small business19 during the 2019 Federal Election, the national momentum on innovation and R&D appears to have slowed. Amongst other things, the Research and Development Tax Incentive Scheme was trimmed in the last two Federal Budgets. This makes it even more important for us to accelerate our R&D efforts in NSW.

What can we do to accelerate NSW’s efforts? There are four broad themes: i) Government action; ii) attracting the best and the brightest; iii) supporting collaboration; and (iv) translation.

R&D is a complex activity with a large number of stakeholders and the questions we are grappling with include:

  • how do we encourage the research in the right areas and the right quality?
  • how do we support the translation of research into economic and social outcomes?
  • how do we make that translation possible for both small and large businesses?
  • how do we attract and retain the best and brightest PhD candidates and researchers?
  • how do we create the right environment for commercialisation to occur, whether it be a start-up or a company looking to reinvent itself?
  • how do we create the right tax and regulatory environment?
  • how do we use procurement by the NSW Government to drive R&D?
  • how do we galvanize the key stakeholders together to accelerate their creative and problem-solving talents?

And across this complex spectrum the key question is when does the NSW Government need to be an enabler, facilitator, active partner and when do we just need to ‘get out of the way’?

In this context, I want to share some of what I have heard from stakeholders and from the Advisory Council. There are four key themes that have emerged which are all interrelated:

  1. Government Action – the role of government as a participant in the R&D ecosystem
  2.  Attraction – attracting the best talent and investment to NSW
  3. Collaboration – galvanizing critical mass for self-perpetuating growth – this is about the reinforcing ‘magic’ comes from bringing people and places together to collaborate
  4. Translation – supporting start-ups to scale up and the commercialisation of research.

Let me now expand on these themes as I am keen to get your insights on them and whatever else you think we should consider.

First, government action. Optimising the Government’s own activities as a participant and driver of R&D through investment, procurement, partnering and convening.

Just this year we have done an audit of the NSW Government’s R&D expenditure for the first time. We spent about $400 million on R&D and enabling activities in 2018-19 – over $130 million on research-enabling activities and over $250 million on R&D. Unfortunately, there is no central co-ordination of these efforts and evaluation of the outcomes achieved are ad-hoc. That is something we need to change along with being more strategic to ensure we get return on our investment and learn from what leads to successful outcomes.

Government procurement can be a strategic driver of R&D and innovation. Each year the NSW Government spends over $30 billion on goods and services20 – we are market maker. One suggestion is to embed a culture in government of supporting and not disadvantaging local start-ups in our procurement. A small business with an as yet unproven innovative solution will likely struggle to succeed in a tender against a proven solution, albeit based on old technology. We need to level the playing field not just to support small businesses and start-ups but to ensure that we all benefit from the extraordinary creativity in our community.21

Government procurement can be a strategic driver of R&D and innovation.

I have heard a lot about the difficulty of navigating the NSW Government and that there is no “front door” so people can easily identify how to work with us on R&D activities. Many stakeholders have highlighted the significant benefit of the Government strategically coordinating universities, government and industry on R&D activities.

We could also do a better job of leveraging our bids together with universities and industry for Federal Government funding.

Another idea is for us to capture some of the commercial benefit from successfully translated R&D and reinvest that back into other R&D projects. We can also better support R&D and its translation through land-use planning for placemaking, tax policies, regulatory settings and investment in human and physical capital.

“Big data” (and its analytics) is the most significant new resource discovered this century – no wonder it keeps popping up in my consultations. The NSW Government collects and curates substantial data which has the potential to help us make better informed and targeted decisions. More of this data should be made available so innovative products and services can be developed.

“Big data” (and its analytics) is the most significant new resource discovered this century – no wonder it keeps popping up in my consultations.

An example of our Government using data to help us make better decisions is a digital twin being developed by our Department of Customer Service’s Spatial Services and CSIRO’s Data61. Digital Twin NSW is creating an interactive digital real-world model of our communities for better planning, transport and design decisions.

Another example is the 2014 NSW Premier’s Innovation Initiative which saw Government crowdsourcing ideas to solve key challenges using our data.22 One success has been the partnership between the NSW Government and Data61 to compile data from Opal, GPS devices, traffic signals and buses to alert road users to congestion and offer up alternative transport routes.23

Second, attraction. Attracting and retaining the best talent and investment into NSW.

I have heard from many stakeholders about the importance of attracting the best talent and investment from big, small and multinational companies. It’s not just about companies having a ‘shop front’ in NSW, but for them to invest by doing their R&D activities here, drawing on the talent in our world class universities and creating new jobs to remain right here.

Third, Collaboration. Galvanizing critical mass to embed the ‘magic’ that can come from bringing people and places together to collaborate.

Putting industry and research organisations in the same physical space, or connecting them up, has proved effective in driving collaboration, innovation and the commercialisation of ideas across the globe.

Shared facilities, equipment, a common sense of identity, formal and informal exchanges of ideas, networks and partnerships can all create an ecosystem that produce what economists call knowledge ‘spillover’. They help people develop their skills through the co-location of universities and research institutes and in collaboration with industry and start-ups that can include student internships and collaborative research projects. This, in turn, attracts domestic and international talent and industry investment and optimises the use of land and buildings.

It’s why the NSW Government has established Innovation Precincts to support this ecosystem approach. But I have also heard from stakeholders that we have too many Precincts and of varying scale and sometimes dubious rationale and that we need to better focus to get the most out of them. This work is underway.

I have also heard from stakeholders that we have too many Precincts and of varying scale and sometimes dubious rationale and that we need to better focus to get the most out of them. This work is underway.

Coordination between the NSW Government, industry and universities is also critical. Through the NSW Waratah Research Network headed by our Chief Scientist and Engineer we have, for the first time, a way of linking up all our key R&D people and activities across Government. And through the Network we are working on ways to support collaboration on R&D and the translation of research with universities and industry.

And what about when we support R&D, making sure our focus is on areas where NSW has a comparative advantage? These are all obvious and smart things that we must do.

Forth – Translation. Supporting start-ups to scale up and the commercialisation of research. Sydney is the start-up capital of Australia, with nearly half (49%) of the nation’s start- up businesses calling it home.24 NSW is well ahead of Queensland at 20% and Victoria at 13%. 25

I’ve been a regular visitor to the Sydney Start-up Hub in the Sydney CBD and have seen first-hand the great outcomes from supporting what are principally tech start- ups to scale, commercialise and grow.

Our $35 million investment in the Start-up Hub was the first of its kind in Australia.26 And since opening in February 2018, it has attracted leading coworking communities including Fishburners, Tank Stream Labs, creative incubator The Studio and Australia’s largest fintech hub, Stone & Chalk. Larger corporate tenants like Microsoft, Optus and Caltex have also established business accelerators in the 11- storey building.

Already many good things have happened. Stone & Chalk’s residents and alumni have raised more than $100 million in their first year at the Startup Hub. Fishburners has tripled its size from 200 to 600 members attracting $40 million in investment and another $65 million in sales. Tank Stream Labs also reports it has doubled its number of start-ups to 85. Australia’s first media technology incubator, The Studio has attracted 40 start-ups and over $25 million in investment since opening in March.27 

Already many good things have happened. Stone & Chalk’s residents and alumni have raised more than $100 million in their first year at the Startup Hub.

So, one of the things we need to do, is to work out if we could take this approach and apply it to other kinds of start-ups.

Vision and mission

So back to where I started tonight, our vision is to make NSW the R&D leader within Australia and a world-class contributor. The initiative will not result in another report that sits on a shelf gathering dust – there are plenty of those! And we don’t want to ‘boil the ocean’ either, as they say. Rather, we want to road-test our Action Plan of how to better do R&D to help solve a big public policy challenge – a challenge that politics, business and universities acting alone cannot solve.

Here are some of the possible challenges:

  • An ageing, growing and urbanising population, which puts pressure on our infrastructure and budget including the healthcare system.
  • Rapidly changing technology, automation, artificial intelligence and big data and how it changes the nature of work.
  • The increasing pressure on our scarce natural resources like water.

These are all challenges we cannot afford to ignore. A better way of doing R&D provides a big opportunity for us to tackle one.

Finally, I want to recap my key messages tonight:

Investment in R&D matters because it powers innovation and can ‘future-proof’ NSW. Whether it’s better economic or social outcomes it will help us respond in the best way to a changing world. NSW has a range of strengths in R&D fields but only pockets of excellence in translating research, so we need to: Make better use of the NSW Government’s R&D activity; Create the right environment in NSW for R&D and commercialisation to thrive; And address some of the critical challenges facing NSW by harnessing the extraordinary brainpower and creativity we have in NSW.

NSW has a range of strengths in R&D fields but only pockets of excellence in translating research

Many questions and issues have been raised during our consultations so there’s a lot of work to do. I want to hear from all stakeholders across the R&D ecosystem on how we can accelerate R&D so we can continue to invest in NSW’s future. I invite you to share your views by making a submission online before the closing date of 13 December. In an uncertain world two things are certain – we don’t have all the answers inside of government and we want your help.

Endnotes

  1. OECD, 2015 Frascati Manual – https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/frascati-manual-2015/concepts-and- definitions-for-identifying-r-amp-d_9789264239012-4-en#page2
  2. UNESCO – http://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary-term/research-and-experimental-development-rd
  3. Material sourced from NSW Office of Health and Medical Research and the NSW Office of the Chief Scientist and Engineer; also Medical Devices Fund, https://www.medicalresearch.nsw.gov.au/medical-devices-fund/
  4. Medical Device Commercialisation Training Program, NSW Health, https://www.medicalresearch.nsw.gov.au/commercialisation- training/
  5. Material sourced from NSW Treasury – IPC work in progress, unpublished work.
  6. NSW Innovation and Productivity Scorecard (August 2019) NSW Innovation and Productivity Council. NSW Government, Sydney.
  7. World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report – https://www.weforum.org/reports/how-to-end-a-decade-of-lost- productivity-growth
  8. Co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, a specialised agency of the United Nations), Global Innovation Index 2019, https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/Home
  9. Co-published by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization, Global Innovation Index 2018, https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/wipo_pub_gii_2018.pdf
  10. Global Innovation Index 2019, ibid.
  11. Joint media release, the Hon Karen Andrews MP with Minister for Health the Hon Greg Hunt MP, $14 million for vaccine to prevent severe oral disease, 26 September 2019, https://nginx-ministers-diis- master.govcms.amazee.io/ministers/karenandrews/media-releases/14-million-vaccine-prevent-severe-oral-disease.
  12. “ISA’s Strategic Plan for Australia to Thrive in the Global Innovation Race” Bill Ferris AC, Chair of Innovation and Science Australia, February 2019, https://www.industry.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-02/australia-to-thrive-in-the-global-innovation- race.pdf.
  13. The United States Study Centre, The Debate Papers: Is the Australian Government doing enough to support innovation? 8 March 2018, https://www.ussc.edu.au/analysis/is-the-australian-government-doing-enough-to-support-innovation-debate-papers.
  14. Australia 2030: prosperity through innovation – A plan for Australia to thrive in the global innovation race (the 2030 Plan), Innovation and Science Australia, 2017, https://www.industry.gov.au/sites/g/files/net3906/f/May%202018/document/pdf/australia- 2030-prosperity-through-innovation-full-report.pdf
  15. Australian Government investment in R&D by program/activity ($m current prices) in the Science, Research and Innovation (SRI) Budget tables: https://www.industry.gov.au/data-and-publications/science-research-and-innovation-sri-budget-tables
  16. Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD), as a proportion of GDP(a) ABShttps://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/8104.0Main%20Features22017- 18?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=8104.0&issue=2017-18&num=&view=
  17. OECD, Gross Domestic Spending on R&D, https://data.oecd.org/rd/gross-domestic-spending-on-r-d.htm
  18. Figures are from the OECD, published here: https://data.oecd.org/rd/gross-domestic-spending-on-r-d.htm; also Roy Green, 16 May 2019, The Conversation, https://theconversation.com/its-the-only-way-to-save-australia-from-a-deep-hole-but-innovation- policy-is-missing-in-action-116966 and Nigel Gladstone, 5 July 2018, Sydney Morning Herald, https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/worrying-trend-in-australian-research-and-development-20180705-p4zpnh.html
  19. David Braue, Election 2019: Where the parties stand on tech, 9 May 2019, ACS Information Age, https://ia.acs.org.au/article/2019/election-2019–where-the-parties-stand-on-tech.html and 2019 Federal Election – campaign commitments, 6 May 2019, Australian Association of Medical Research Institutes https://aamri.org.au/news-events/2019-federal- election-campaign-commitments/ and David Crowe, 28 April 2019, Sydney Morning Herald https://www.smh.com.au/federal- election-2019/morrison-on-cyber-alert-through-156-million-election-promise-20190428-p51i12.html
  20. ProcurePoint, NSW Government, NSW Government Small and Medium Enterprise and Regional Procurement Policy, https://www.procurepoint.nsw.gov.au/policy-and-reform/goods-and-services-procurement-policies/nsw-government-small-and- medium-enterprise
  21. NSW Government Premier’s Priorities, 2019, https://www.nsw.gov.au/improving-nsw/premiers-priorities/ That is part of us having a world class public service which one of the Premier’s Priorities.
  22. NSW Government, Premier’s Innovation Initiative expressions of interest open, 10 September 2014 https://www.nsw.gov.au/news-and-events/news/premiers-innovation-initiative-expressions-of-interest-open/
  23. Transport Analytics Group, Data61, ADAIT, The NSW Premier’s Innovation Initiative http://adait.io/inno-pii.html
  24. NSW Innovation and Productivity Scorecard (August 2019) NSW Innovation and Productivity Council. NSW Government. Sydney. https://public.tableau.com/profile/innovation.productivity.nsw.department.of.industry#!/vizhome/NSWInnovationProductivityScorecar d/Cover?publish=yes
  25. NSW Innovation and Productivity Scorecard (August 2019) NSW Innovation and Productivity Council. NSW Government. Sydney. https://public.tableau.com/profile/innovation.productivity.nsw.department.of.industry#!/vizhome/NSWInnovationProductivityScorecar d/Cover?publish=yes
  26. Sydney Start Up Hub, One Year Report, 2019, https://sydneystartuphub.com/ data/assets/pdf_file/0018/217350/One-year- report-2019.pdf
  27. https://sydneystartuphub.com/ data/assets/pdf_file/0018/217350/One-year-report-2019.pdf
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